Environmental epidemiology is the study of the effect on human health of physical, biologic, and chemical factors in the external environment, broadly conceived.
What is an example of environmental epidemiology?
For example, an RR of 1.4 for lung cancer after exposure to environmental tobacco smoke indicates that exposed persons are 40% more likely to develop lung cancer than are non-exposed persons. The strength of association must often be considered in relation to the population at risk and intensity of the exposure.
What is the basis for environmental epidemiology?
Environmental epidemiology is the study of the distribution and environmental determinants of disease. This observational science relies upon events occurring within human populations, so-called natural experiments, from which inference is drawn to identify causes of disease.
Why is environmental epidemiology important?
Environmental epidemiology is one of the most important tools used in environmental management decision making owing to its capacity to assess and monitor environmental hazards in different settings and quantify their health impact on the population at risk.
What are the characteristics of environmental epidemiology?
Environmental epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology concerned with determining how environmental exposures impact human health.
- Odds ratio.
- Relative risk.
- Hazards ratio.
- Regression modeling.
- Mortality rates.
- Attributable risk.
What epidemiology means?
By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).
Where do environmental epidemiologists work?
Epidemiologists are public health workers who investigate patterns and causes of disease and injury. Epidemiologists work in offices and laboratories, usually at health departments for state and local governments, in hospitals, and at colleges and universities.
What is environment and environmental pollution?
Environmental pollution is defined as “the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected. From: Environmental Management, 2017.
What are epidemiological issues?
Epidemiology has been defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specific populations and the application of this study to control of health problems.”3 It tends, for the most part, to use the “medical model” of health need, viewing need in terms of the occurrence …
What is the epidemiological triangle?
The Epidemiologic Triangle, sometimes referred to as the Epidemiologic Triad, is a tool that scientists use for addressing the three components that contribute to the spread of disease: an external agent, a susceptible host and an environment that brings the agent and host together.
What are the benefits to health when environmental epidemiology strategies are used?
It can also contribute to chronic disease epidemiology the better identification and measurement of independent variables when these are environmental exposures and conditions. Environmental epidemiology has the advantage of being able to study and possibly prevent health impairment which has not yet led to disease.
Why is epidemiology important to the study of environmental health problems?
Epidemiology is important to the study of environmen- tal health problems because (1) many exposures and health effects associated with the environment occur at the popula- tion level; (2) the epidemiologic methods of natural experi- ments and observational techniques are appropriate; (3) the study designs used in …
What is the simple definition of environment?
Full Definition of environment
1 : the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is surrounded. 2a : the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (such as climate, soil, and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival.
What are the epidemiological approaches?
The three main types of epidemiological approaches consist of interventional epidemiology, descriptive epidemiology, and analytic epidemiology (John, 2001).
What are environmental contaminants?
Environmental contaminants are chemicals that accidentally or deliberately enter the environment, often, but not always, as a result of human activities. Some of these contaminants may have been manufactured for industrial use and because they are very stable, they do not break down easily.
What is meant by molecular epidemiology?
Molecular epidemiology is a subdivision of medical science and epidemiology that emphases on the involvement of potential environmental and genetic risk factors, recognized at the molecular level, to the etiology and avoidance of sickness through populations.